Elements 'C'

INTRODUCTION ABERTAWE SWANSEA & District AFAN / NEDD BRECONSHIRE BRIDGEND and The VALE CARDIFF and district CARMARTHENSHIRE Cwm RHONDDA Valleys CWM TAWE (Swansea Valley) CYNON VALLEY GŴYR / GOWER LLANDEILO TAL-Y-BONT Pryscedwin  LLIW VALLEY LLYNFI VALLEY MERTHYR TYDFIL MONMOUTHSHIRE PEMBROKESHIRE PONTARDULAIS (Pontarddulais) PONTYPRIDD and district Place-name Elements 'A' Elements 'B' Elements 'C' Elements 'DEF' Elements 'G' Elements 'HIJK'. Elements 'L' Elements 'M' Elements 'N' & 'O' Elements 'P' - 'PL' Elements 'PO' - 'Q' Elements 'R' Elements 'S' Elements 'T' Elements 'U' and 'V' Elements 'W' Elements 'Y' ONOMASTIC TALES PLACE-NAME CHANGES Guest Book



 

caban  W, borr. from M. Eng. cabane 'a crude hut or cottage'. e.g. Cloddia'r capan (cloddiau'r caban) Llantrisant.

cadair  W, fem. sing. n. 'chair, seat...' pl. cadeiriau. e.g. Cader Fawr, Penderyn.

Cadifor, Cedifor   W, pers. name. e.g. Pant Cadifor, Merthyr Tydfil. Pen Cad Ivor Fawr, Eglwysilan. Llodre Cadifor, Carms.

cadlys  W, fem. sing. n. 'enclosed land, enclosure, courtyard, farmyard'. e.g. Y Gadlys, Aberdare & Llangynnwyd.

Cadwal  W, pers. name. see Cydweli, Carms.

cae      W, masc. sing. n., pl. caeau ‘hedge, hedge-row, fence; field, enclosure'.  The early meaning was ‘hedge, hedge-row, fence', later becoming ‘field, enclosure', i.e. the enclosed land.  The local pronunciation is ‘ka:', plural ‘ki: e'. e.g. Cae Cerrig, Cae Garw, Cae'r Efail, Cae'r Pistyll, Cae mawr, Cae bach y ffair, etc. Lltbnt.

caer   W, fem. sing. n. 'fort, enclosed stronghold'. pl. caerau. see Caerdydd.

Caesar  v.  cesair 

cain     W, adj., ‘fair, bright', e.g. Cae gain, Dantwyn. Lltbnt. Machen, Gwent.

calch    W, masc. sing. n., ‘lime, chalk'. Lime, obtained from burning limestone in a kiln,  was used extensively by the rural population of the 18th, 19th centuries as a fertiliser, for making mortar, whitewashing walls etc. e.g.  Groft cae odin galch, Cae odin galch issaf, Cae odin galch uchaf. Lltbnt.

cam     W, sing. adj., pl. ceimion ‘crooked, bowed, curved, winding'. e.g. Camffrwd (r.n.).  Cae cam. Ddolgam. Lltbnt.

cannaid   W, adj. and fem. sing. n., ‘white, bright, shining, pure, clean, radiant'. GPC.  e.g. Abernant Cannad (1783), Abercannaid, Blaen Cannaid, Cwmcannaid.  Merthyr Tydfil.

canpunt W, col. n., 'a hundred pounds'. Tir William Canpunt. Aberdare.

canol   W, sing. adj., ‘middle'.  e.g. Coedsaison Ganol, Llandremor Ganol, Tycanol, Bolgoed Ganol, Waun ganol, Bryncethin canol etc. Lltbnt. also local pronunciation cenol e.g. Cae cenol.

capel   W, masc. sing. n., pls. capeli, capelau, capeloedd, capelydd, borrowed from Lat. cappella (dim. of  cappa CAPE, originally the sanctuary devoted to the preservation of the cloak or cape of St. Martin of Tours), later applied to oratories or parochial places of worship,  ‘chapel'. e.g.  Capel Iago, Capel Drime. Pont y Cappel. Lltbnt. Capel Dewi; Capel Isaac; Capel Hendre, Carms.                                                                      

car  W, 'cart, drag'. see Rhydycar, Merthyr Tydfil. 

caredig      W, adj. ‘kind, loving, friendly; beloved,dear'. e.g. Nantgaredig, Lltbnt. & Carms.

carennydd       W, ‘kindred, friendship, love'. e.g.  ? Cae Caernidd, aka Cae Cerneidd & Cae Cyrnyd. Lltbnt.

cariad  W, masc. sing. n, pl. cariadau ‘love, charity, affection'. e.g. Llety gariad, Lltbnt. & Llandeilo.

carn     W, masc. and fem. n., pls. carnau, cernydd, cerni, ‘cairn, barrow, tumulus, mound, rock; heap, pile.'  e.g. Cwrtycarnau, Cae brincarn, Cae caernidd, Cae Cernydd. Lltbnt. Garngoch, Swansea.

carrai  W, fem. sing. n., pls. careiau, careion, careiydd, borrowed from Latin corrigia, ‘thong, latchet, lace, leather strap, rein, lash of whip, leash, fig. of  a narrow strip or of a worthless thing'. GPC.  In place-names it is indicative of a long, narrow strip of land. e.g. Garre bach. Lltbnt. Cf. ‘Y Garri' in Glam. field-names.

carreg W, fem. sing. n., ‘stone', pl. cerrig.  e.g. Cae cerrig. Nant-y-garreg.LLtbnt. Carreg Cennen, Carms.

cas   W, dim. of castell. e.g. Caslwchwr, Casllwchwr, Swansea. 

castell   W, masc. sing. n., (from Lat. castellum) , ‘castle, fort, stronghold', pl. cestyll. e.g. Castell Du, Castell bach, Gardd hencastell. Lltbnt. Castellnedd, Neath; Castellnewydd Emlyn, Cards. Castell Coch, Cardiff.

cat  Eng. 'a cat'. see Cathays, Cardiff. 

cawl     W, sing. masc. n. ‘kale, sea-kale, wild cabbage'. c.f. Eng. cauliflower. e.g. Porthcawl, Glam. Heol-y-cawl, Glam. (Y) Gowlog, Llancarfan. (GOP)         

cefn     W, masc. sing. n., ‘back, ridge, butt'. e.g. Cefen Drum, Cefenarda, Gardd cefnty.Lltbnt. Cefncoed-y-cymer, M.T.; Cyncoed, Cardiff. Kendon, Hirwaun. Kincoed, Kingcoed, Gwent.

ceffyl   W, masc. sing. n., pl. ceffylau, ‘horse'. e.g. Groft y ceffyl.Lltbnt.

cegyr wen  W, fem. coll. n. 'white hemlock'. see Gwauncaegurwen, Carms. 

ceiliagwydd     W, masc. sing. n., pl. ceiliagwyddau ‘gander'.  Local pronunciation ‘clacwydd' possibly abbreviated to ‘clac', referring to the gander or to the sound or noise of the gander. e.g.  ? Coed y glak. ? Cae glak uchaf. ? Cae glak issaf. Lltbnt. Penceiliagwydd, Llanelli.

ceiniog            W, fem. sing. n., pl. ceiniogau ‘penny; profit, gain, sum of earnings'. e.g. Lladrad y geiniog, Lladdiad y ddwygeiniog. LLtbnt.

celfi     W, sing. and coll. n., ‘column, pillar, post'. e.g. Cefncelfi, Pontardawe.

celyn   W, fem. pl. n., sing. celynen, ‘holly'.  e.g. Talycynllwyn (< Taly kelyn llwyn,.  Rhoscelyn. Lltbnt. Trecelyn, Newbridge, Gwent.

celynnog  W, 'where holly grows'. recorded as cylynnog, gylynnog; clynnog and glynnog.

celli     W, fem. sing. n., pls. celliau, cellioedd, ‘grove, copse, woodland'. e.g Pengelli, Gelli wastad. Lltbnt. Gelligaer, Glam. Y Gelli fendigad, Llanwynno. Y Gelli Deg, Aberdare & others.

cerdinen, cerddinen   W, fem. sing. n. 'rowan tree', pl. cerdin. e.g. Gerdinen Terrace, Pant-y-Gerddinen, Pant-y-cerdin, Cwmbach, Aberdare. 

cesair    W, coll. n., ‘hailstones', Gwentian dial. cesar, cesal;  Demetian dial. ceser. e.g. Nant-y-cesair, Creigiau. See Caesar's Arms, Creigiau, in Cardiff and district.              

cethin  W, adj., ‘dark, ruddy, swarthy, dusky, brown, roan, dun, russet'. e.g  Bryn cethin uchaf, Bryn cethin bach, Wain bryn cethin, Bryn cethin main. Lltbnt. Bryncethin, Glam.

ceubal  W, masc. sing. n. 'ferry boat, skiff'. see Gabalfa, Cardiff. 

ceulan W, fem. sing. n., ‘(hollow) bank of a river, edge, brink, verge'. e.g. Y Gilan, Llanwynno. (RJT)

ceunant           W, masc. sing. n., ‘deep dingle, gorge or brook', e.g. Cwm y gainant, Cae gainant, Cae yr gainant. Lltbnt.

chapel             Eng. ‘Place of  Christian worship other than cathedral or parish church, esp. attached to part of an institution or private house; ­separate part of cathedral or church with its own altar; ® place of worship of  Nonconformist bodies.'   Grono chapel ­ in the old church of St. Teilo. Thomas Chapel, Pembs.

chequer    Eng. 'squares of different colours'. e.g. Chequar, (field-name) Ffosyrefail. Lltbnt.

church   Eng., n. and adj., ‘relating to religious or ecclesiastical matters'. E.g. Church Mill. Lltbnt. Whitchurch, Yr Eglwys newydd, see Cardiff. Coychurch, Llangrallo, Glam.

chwarter, cwarter  W, 'a fourth part, a quarter (of an acre)'. 

chwechar, chwecher, chwecherw   W, 'six acres'.

chwith  W, adj. and masc. sing. n., loc. dial. with, pl. chwithion , loc. dial. withion, ‘left; awkward; sinister; strange;'. e.g. Coed Wain Rhoswith, Wainrhoes with, Wainrhoes with uchaf, Wainrhoes with issaf, Cae wy thion, Cae with Benty.   Lltbnt.         

cil        W, masc. sing. n., pl. ciliau, cilion, cilod, ciloedd, ‘corner, angle; retreat, recess, nook; river source'. e.g. Cil yr ystarn,  Lltbnt. Cilfynydd, Cilybebyll, Cila/Killay, Glam.

clacwydd   v.   ceiliagwydd          

clai      W, masc. sing. n., pl. cleiau, cleion, borrowed from ME. clai, clei, ‘clay'. e.g.  Coedcae y clai. Lltbnt. Y Gl¿en, Llan-non and Llandeilo, Carms.

clawdd W, masc. n. pl. cloddiau ‘ditch, pit, mine, barrier'. e.g. Cae hen glawdd, Pengelliddrain. Lltbnt. Penclawdd, Gower.

clog  W, 'crag, cliff'. e.g. Y Glog, Twyn y glog, Llanwynno. 

clor, cylor        W, coll. and pl. n., masc. sing. cloryn, fem. sing. cloren, doubled pl. clorod ‘earth-nuts; pig-nuts;'  e.g. Clordir, Cylordir. Pontlliw.

clos      W,  masc. sing. n., pl. closydd , borrowed from Eng. close  ‘enclosed space; fenced or hedged piece of land.' also used in south Wales for ‘farmyard, court, yard'. e.g. Clos dir bach. Y clos. Lltbnt.

clots    W, from Eng. clod(s) ‘a mass of earth or turf'. e.g Ty clots. Probably a house constructed of clods of turf bound together with clay. Lltbnt.

clun     W, sing. masc. n., pl. cluniau ‘meadow; moor; brake, brushwood'.  Sometimes written clyn and often changing to glyn.  e.g. Clyn-y-fid, Wain clyn mawr, Cae clyn poeth pellaf, Cod clyn dyrys, Glynhir,  Glyncorsyfron ? Lltlbnt. Talyclun, Llanedi.

clwt      W, masc. sing. n., pl. clytiau loc. dial. clwte ‘a piece of land' borrowed from ME clut later to become clout ‘a piece, patch, flat piece, shred'.  The dim. form is clwtyn. e.g. Croft clwt y ddinan, Bank clwt y ddinan, Ty clwtte, Clwtte bach, Clutte. Lltbnt.

cnap    W, from Eng. knap ‘land on or containing a hillock'e.g. Cae gnap. Lltbnt. Cae cnap, Pentyrch. (RJT)

cnydfa  W, 'a fruitful, productive place'. see Cefnydfa, Llynfi Valley. 

coal     Eng., ‘black combustible, carbonaceous rock'. e.g. Coalbrook, Grovesend. Lltbnt. Cold Knap, Y Barri, Glam.

coch     W, adj. and masc. n., pl. cochion ‘red, ruddy, scarlet, bloody; ginger (of hair); brown'. GPC.  e.g. Rhydgoch, Morfa coch, Waungoch, Penrhiw goch, Ty coch, Wainfach rhydgoch,Cae canol rhydgoch, Waste rhydgoch, Cae bach rhydgoch. Lltbnt. Gilfach Goch, Castell Coch Glam. etc. 

cockshoot   Eng., ‘a glade where woodcock were netted as they shot through'. C.E.D. e.g. Cock shot Loyn-y-nant. Lltbnt. also as cocsid, cocsidia in n. Wales. see GPC.

coed    W, pl. and coll. n., fem. sing. coeden, double pls. coedydd, coedau  ‘forest, woods, trees etc. Local pronunciation ko:d.  e.g. Coedbach, Coedsaeson, Gorsgoed, Tynycoed, Dolgoed, Coed mawr, Coed wain dew, Croft y coed etc. N.B. Bolgod and Gilgod reflect loc. pron. Cefncoed, Swansea; Coity, (coed, du) Glam.

coeg        W, adj, 'empty; blind'. Ffynnon-y-gog (y ffynnon goeg) Cefnpennar, Cwm Cynon. 

coetgae             W, masc. sing. n., pl. coetgaeau ‘a large field or park; a large fenced sheep walk on down or mountain'.  A composite word, coed + cae, with an original meaning of ‘enclosed clearing in a forest or woods'.  e.g. Coetgae, Coetgae Cae gwyn bach, coed cae gwyn bach, Coed cae, Coedcae yr lan. Lltbnt.

collier  Eng., ‘a coal miner'. ?(location) Colliers' Row. Lltbnt.

common(s)      Eng., ‘common land',  ‘a tract of open land used in common by the inhabitants of a town, parish etc.' C.E.D.  e.g. Bryn-bach Common, Cefndrum and Gopa fach Commons, Commons and Waste. Lltbnt.

copa    W, masc. and fem. sing. n., dim. copyn, pl.  copau borrowed from ME coppe, copp, cop ‘top, summit'. GPC. e.g. Y Gopa, Gopa Fach, Gopa Row, Goppa Bank, Goppa Street, Gopa Chapel.  C > G  in a fem. n. following the def. art. Lltbnt.

copped            OE, pa. part., adj., ‘having a peak or top, peak, heaped to form a peak,' also ‘having had the head removed, polled, cut down somewhat'. e.g. Copped grove. Lltbnt.

cored   W, fem. sing. n., pl. coredau ‘weir; dam; fishgarth.' GPC. e.g. Ynis y gored. Lltbnt.      Masc. sing. in Pant y Corad, Pentyrch. (RJT)

corf, corof W, masc. and fem. sing. n., ‘wooded precipice by a river'. GPC. e.g. Gorof, Gorof Road, Gorove Cottages, Ystradgynlais. Gorof Nedd, Ystradfellte. Caia'r Gorof, Llanwynno. Yn Herar pen Goroff, Merthyr Tydfil. (RJT) Gorof, Brynprydydd, Penderyn.

corn     Eng., cereal plant. e.g  cornyard. Lltbnt.

cornel  W, masc. and fem. n., pl. cornelau, corneli, cornelydd diminutive cornelyn borrowed from Eng. corner with a dissimilation of the final consonant r with l, cf. dresser > dresel;  razor > rasel; measure > mesul; y faenor > y faenol; Turner > Tyrnel etc.  Cae tri chornel contains a mutation of  c > ch in cornel, following the numeral tri. e.g. Ca tri chornel, Lltbnt.

corner Eng., used in W. syntax as Corner wain newydd. Lltbnt.

cors     W, fem. sing. n., pl. corsydd ‘fen, bog, swamp, marsh'. e.g. Glyncorsyfron, Gorsgoed, Gorslas (a soft mutation of c > g following a redundant def. art.). Lltbnt. Gorseinon, Swansea.

Cothi   W, river-name. ‘...to be associated with the verb-noun cothi ‘to throw out, excrete' as in ysgothi. RJT/EANC 135. e.g. Cothi, Cwm Cothi, Glyn Cothi, etc. Carms.  Nant Cothi, Tir Cwm Cothi, Cwm Cothi Farm, Merthyr Tydfil. (Griffiths)

cottage Eng., ‘a small, simple, rural house'. e.g. Farmers Cottage, Railway Cottage, Glynhir Cottage, Cottage Dantwyn Farm, Cottage Goppa Mount. Lltbnt.

crach   W, pl. n., (singular crachen, ‘scab'), ‘poor patch of land, mean tenement'. e.g. Crach cwmbach. Lltbnt.

craig    W, fem. sing. n., pls. creigiau, creigydd ‘rock; boulder; stone'.  Graig Fawr (containing a soft mutation c > g in a feminine noun following a redundant definite article). e.g. Graig fach. Lltbnt. Graigcefnparc, Glam.

crech   v. crych

crimbil   W, masc. sing. n., pl. crimbilion ‘hill, hillock, slope, steep climb.' (RJT) e.g. Erw grimbil. Lltbnt. Kae Crimbil, Aberdare. (RJT)

crimp   W, masc. sing. n. ‘long ridge', dim. crimpyn. e.g. Cae Crimpin, Llantrisant. (RJT)

crimpyn   v. crimp

crobyn   W, sing. masc. n. ‘hillock, mound'. e.g. Cae Crobin, Pentyrch. (RJT)

croes    W, fem.  sing. n. ‘cross, crucifix; crossroads.' e.g. Abernant y Groes, Aberdare. Y Groesfaen, Pentyrch. Croesheol y Beddau, Llantrisant. Y Croesty, Aberdare. (RJT)

croesheol         W, croes, heol.

croft    Eng. ‘little field'. e.g.  Dulais croft, Croft y coed, Croft Alltiago fach. Lltbnt.

crofft   W, fem. sing. n., dims. crofften, crofftan, pls. crofftydd, crofftau, borrowed from Eng. croft ‘little field', usually near a dwelling. e.g.  Croft, Croft y gof, Coed y groftan, Croft y mynydd, Croft y dwr, groft fach, Groft yr odin, groft y pant, Grofft y ffynnon, Lltbnt.

cross   Eng. 'cross, cross-roads'. See Crosshands, Carms. 

crwca   W, adj., ‘crooked, bent, curved', pl. crwcaod. e.g. Crwca. Lltbnt.

crwm   W, adj., fem. crom ‘crooked, bent, curved, bowed, hooked'. e.g. Crwm, Cae crwm. Lltbnt. Crymych, Pembs.

crwmp   W, masc. sing. n., ‘hillock, tump', dim. crwmpyn.  e.g. Cae Crwmpyn, Llantrisant. (RJT)

crwmpyn   v. crwmp

crwn, cron       W, adj., fem. cron ‘round, circular'.  Waungron [ a soft mutation c > g  in a fem. sing. adj. following a fem. sing. n.], e.g. Pencaecrwn, Rospencrwn, Gwain mays saith grwn. Lltbnt.

crwth   W, masc. sing. n. from Ir.Gael. cruit,'hillock, mound, tump'. e.g. Gwain y Crwth, Llantrisant. (RJT)

crych   W, adj. and also a masc. n., fem. crech  ‘vibrant, quivering; rippling, bubbling'. e.g. Ffynon grech. Lltbnt.

cudd    W, adj. ‘concealed, hidden'. e.g. Wern gudd. Lltbnt.

culverhouse  Eng. 'a dove cot'. See Culverhouse Cross/Croesycwrlws, Cardiff. 

curn, cyrn  W, pl. of  corn 'horn'. See Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil.

cwar    W, masc. sing. n., pls. cwarrau, cwerrydd  ‘stone quarry', ‘rock, large mass of rock in its natural state' borrowed from Eng. dial. quar(r). e.g. Y cwar,  Grofft y quar, Cae quar, Pen quar etc. Lltbnt.

cwarter            W, masc. sing. n., pl. cwarterion borrowed from Eng. quarter ‘one part of four, a quarter acre', [also ‘district, locality, neighbourhood' as well as, ‘soldiers' quarters, married quarters'.]  Quarter allt, Quarter drainog, Quarter ffynnon, Pump quarter, Quarterion, etc. Lltbnt.

cwcw, gwcw     W, fem. sing. n., pl. cwcwod [a word imitating the sound of the bird, cf. Eng. cuckoo, French    coucou, Irish cucu]. ‘Cuckoo; song or cry of the cuckoo'.  Llety gwcw, Cae letty gwcw. Lltbnt.

cwm     W, masc. sing. n., pls. cymoedd, cymau, cymydd ‘a deep narrow valley, coomb, glen, dale; hollow, bowl-shaped depression'.  Cf. Irish cum ‘vessel',  Breton komm ‘trough, shallow vessel', Gaulish cumba ‘the bottom of a ship', Eng. cumb from British cumbo ‘valley'.  [see GPC s.n., ELl 28, ELlSG 103, EPNE 119, PNDPH 339.]  e.g. Cwm Dulais, Cwmdwrgi, Cwmavon Road, Cwm y llech, Cwm bach. Lltbnt. Cwmbach, Cwmaman, Cwmpennar, Cwmdâr, Cwm Ynismintan, Aberdare,

cwman Welsh, dim. of cwm. e.g. Cwmanllech. Lltbnt.

cwmwr Welsh, masc. sing. n. 'footbridge'. Cwmwr Shon, Aberdare.

cwrlwys  W,  form of Eng, 'culverhouse'. see Culverhouse Cross/ Croesycwrlws, Cardiff. 

cwrn   W, masc. sing. n. ‘lump; a rock jutting out similar to a sheaf of corn,' pl. cyrnau. e.g. Y Cyrna, Llanwynno. (RJT)

cwrt     W, masc. sing. n., pls. cwrtydd, cwrtau, cwrtiau ‘court, mansion, imposing building; courtyard, enclosure, farmyard' borrowed from ME curt, corte, court. Also synonymous with Eng. barton and grange [ADG2,p27] ‘an outlying farm belonging to a religious house or a feudal lord where crops were stored'. The former definition is applicable to Llwyncwrthywel, Cwrt mawr and Cwrtgwyn. The latter would apply to Cwrtycarne. Lltbnt.

cwrw  W, masc. sing. n. 'beer, ale'. See Cwmrhydyceirw, Cwm Tawe.

cwtsh   W, masc. sing. n. ‘cottage, hut, couch, bed.' e.g. Y Cwtsh, Llanwynno. Cwtsh y cwn, Llantwit Fardre. (RJT)

cyfair   W, masc. and fem. n. ‘acre'. e.g. Y Tair Cyfar, Aberdare. (RJT)

cyfarthfa   W, fem. sing. n., ‘a barking; fight, battle, a holding at bay'. ‘....a place where a hunted animal would stand its ground, with the hounds barking fiercely about it'. (trans.) GPC. e.g. Y Gyfarthfa, Cyfarthfa, Merthyr Tydfil. Tir y Gyvarthva, (1572) Brecs. see under Merthyr Tydfil.

Cyfnerth W, pers. name. e.g. Pwll Cyfnerth; Pant Cyfnerth, (Pantcefnyffordd) Penderyn.

cymer W, masc. sing. n. 'a confluence; a meeting of rivers and streams'. E.g. Cefn Coedycymer  Merthyr Tydfil; Pont y Cymar, Llantrisant; Cymer Afan, Glam. 

Cynfoi    W, pers. name. e.g. Abercwmboi, Aberdare. [Aber Convoye, 1570]

cynhaeaf  W, masc. sing. n. 'harvest'. See Cynheidre, Carms. 

Cynnis  W, Ir., pers. name. See Machynnis, Carms.

cyw      W, masc. sing. n., pls. cywion, cywon, cywiaid, cywain ‘young bird, chick'.  e.g. Nantyciwbach. Lltbnt.